Moroccan Arabic Essay
Moroccan Arabic, 477 words essay example
Essay Topic: arabic
Starting with Moroccan Arabic which expresses sentential negation with two elements a proclitic ma and an enclitic . In verbal sentences ,ma precedes the verb and follows it as in (1). In verbless sentences, however, ma and are joined together as in (2 a,b).
Following Benmamoun (2000,2010), Standard Arabic uses five main sentential negative markers or particles, which according to Alsalem (2012) has their own specific use and structure. The negative particles are laa , lam, lan , laysa and maa. Benmamoun(2010) divides these particles into two groups, laa with its tensed variants, lam, lan, laysa, and the second group consists of maa.
Starting with the first negative particle laa which according to Benmamoun (2010) occurs in the present tense with verbal predicates as in (1)
(1) T-Tullab-u laa ya-drusuu-n
the-students Neg 3-study-mp-ind
'The students do not study.'
The first tensed variant of laa is lam which occurs in past tense sentences as in (2a), and the second particle lan occurs in future tense sentences as in (2b).
The third variant of the particle laa is laysa. According to Benmamoun (2010) it occurs in non-verbal predicates as in the examples (3a,c) from Benmamoun (2010)
To be notices above is that the negative particle laysa is different from the other negative markers in two aspects. First, it is a verb like (cf. Benmamoun 2000) and assigns accusative case to the predicate. Second, it carries subject agreement. In (3c) for instance, laysa carries first person plural and assigns genitive case to the predicate.
The fifth negative particle in Modern Standard Arabic is maa. According to Benmamoun (2000) maa is the negative marker which is related to the one found in Moroccan Arabic. This particle occurs in a wide variety of contexts as the following examples from Benmamoun and Alsalem illustrates
As it has been noted above, the negative particle maa occurs in a wide variety of contexts. In (4a,b) maa negates a past tense sentence and an habitual present tense respectively. And in (4c,d,e) it negates non-verbal sentences with a nominal, adjectival and PP predicate respectively. (cf. Benmamoun 2010)
Folowing Ouhalla (1991) Rowlet (1998) French expresses Sentential Negation with two elements, ne and pas. In finite sentences, the negative marker ne precedes the verb, and pas follows it as in example (1) below. In non-finite sentences, however, both the negative markers ne and pas precedes the verb as the example (2) illustrates
(1) Les invits n'arriv-er-ont pas demain.
The guests NEG arrive-will-3p NEG tomorrow
'The guests will not arrive tomorrow.'
(2) Ne pas tre heureux est une condition pour crire des romans.
ne pas to-be happy is a prerequisite for to-write of-the.novels
"Not to be happy is a prerequisite to write novels."
Negation in English follows the auxiliary and precedes the main verb.( cf. Ouhalla 2002, Swart 2006). According to Ouhalla and Swart, this motivates the construction of do-support in the examples above. Without the insertion of do-support, (3c) for instance would be ungrammatical
(3) c. *Colyn not happy.