The results of phytochemical screening tests Essay

The results of phytochemical screening tests, 491 words essay example

Essay Topic: enzyme, activity, transport, profile

The results of phytochemical screening tests showed that total extract had a moderate level of flavonoids (quercetin 3-O-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), a large amount of tannins (three hydroxycinnamic acids (3-O- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids and ferulic acid), and furanocoumarins (psoralen and bergapten). In this regard, come data suggests that flavonoids could lower cholesterol levels significantly in both the plasma and liver [2,14]
Bok et al. reported that the hepatic activities of HMG-CoA reductase and acyl CoA cholesterol O-Acyl transferase (ACAT) were lower in rats that were fed with citrus peel extra or a mixture of citrus bioflavonoids (narigenin and hespridin) [2]. Although the type of flavonoids and the mechanism of action in different leaf extracts of on cholesterol levels are not known, one or more constituents of the extracts may play a role in the cholesterol synthesis or metabolic pathways. Asadi et al. also hypothesized that flavonoids or tannins found in fig leaves could be part of the active principle as shown in their livel call models by which that flavonoids could increase HDL levels [3]. In this regard, a report by Park et al. showed that tannins had hypolipidemic effects when tannic acid supplemented rat feed for three weeks in which they noted that tannic acid lowered both plasma lipid concentrations (cholesterol and triglyceride) and hepatic HMG-CoAreductase activity [22].
Adisakwattama et al. who found that coumaric acids (4 hydroxy-trans Cinnamic acid) showed to possess antioxidant activity which minimized the oxidation of LDL involving direct scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) [11,30,31]. On the other hand, ferulic acid, a most abundant natural phenolic compound in Ficus Carica leaf can be characterized as natural antioxidant scavenger free radicals. In this respect, Sudheer et al. reported that ferulic acid exerts its protective effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting antioxidant defense system in tissues [32,33]. On the other side, cinnamic related flavonoids are present in Ficus Carica leaves. A series of cinnamic acid derivatives inhibited human acetyl CoA cholesterol acyltransferase also reserved as antioxidant against copper mediated LDL oxidation [36].
Effect of fig on lipid profile
Effects of Ficus Carica preparations on key factors associated with hyperlipidaemia have been described in the literature. Recent findings indicate that Interestingly, the decrease in triglycerides secretion observed in the FC leaf extract treatment was concurrent with decreases in cell triglycerides content and total cholesterol secretion.
It is well known that insulin acts on TG storage and secretion via the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme in the fatty acid synthase complex. In Asadi et al. study, they showed that FTE modulates the action of insulin, in terms of both TG storage and secretion, when compared to the control and insulin stimulated TG content and secretion which suggested that fig leaves capable of stimulating the lipolytic activity of the plasma LPL system. In addition, treatment with FC extract led to significant elevation of serum HDL-C, indicating its promising protective role against cardiovascular disease, by which HDL-C counteracting LDL oxidation or by reversing the cholesterol transport [11,14,20].

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